A series of preparatory meetings for COP21 took place, including the Bonn climate change conference from 19 to 23 October 2015, at which a draft agreement was presented.  Prior to the conference, 146 national climate bodies publicly presented a national climate contribution project („Intended Nationally Determined Contributions,“ INDCs). These proposed commitments have been estimated to limit global warming to 2.7 degrees Celsius by 2100.  In the EU, the EU has proposed that INDC commit to reducing its emissions by 40% by 2030 compared to 1990.  The agreement provides for a „comprehensive state of affairs“ that reviews national objectives in order to „update and improve“ them every five years from 2023.  However, unlike the previous Kyoto Protocol, no country-by-country timetable or emissions targets were included in the Paris Agreement. The UN Climate Change Conference 2015, COP 21 or CMP 11, was held in Paris from 30 November to 12 December 2015. This was the 21st annual meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th meeting of the CMP on the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.  In the end, all parties recognized the need to „prevent, reduce and address losses and damages,“ particularly any mention of compensation or liability.  The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses.  Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue, as a UNFCCC Schedule 1 country, to prepare national communications and an annual inventory of greenhouse gases.  Although the enhanced transparency framework is universal, the framework, coupled with the global inventory that takes place every five years, aims to provide „integrated flexibility“ to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries.